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The winemaking
To the winemaking to approach is not an easy thing. In France, it is stale to say that there are as many wines as vines.

Each winemaker gives his own personal touch, before and after the wine preparation. Any decision in the order of preparation has on the quality and taste consequences:

  • the location of the vineyard
  • the climate (and the date of the vintage)
  • the choice of the vine, it is the most crucial
  • the choice of the container in which the must ferment
  • the temperature of the must kept during fermentation
  • the duration of the fermentation
  • the choice of the container in which the wine matures

No one can say that there is only one way to make the wine. This gives him his charm and his incredible diversity. The processing of the wine requires dexterity and experience. A winemaker is not just a craftsman but also an artist.

The following stages will allow you to answer the possible questions you may have about making the wine.
1. the planting (or finishing) of the vine
2. the growth of the grapes
3. the harvest of grapes
4. the destemming * and mashing
5. the alcoholic fermentation
6. Maceration *
7. the parting off (or lowering)
8. the apple-lactic acid fermentation
9. the expansion
10. the bottling
11. the wine tasting
* : this process falls away for the white wine

The stew : The grapes are separated from the black horse

The mashing : the grapes are crushed by their own weight (or mechanically)

the must : The juice obtained by maceration is the must

the alcoholic fermentation : the conversion of the sugar contained in the must into ethyl alcohol

the maceration : The pomace (skin, core, black horse) impregnates the must, gives it body and color

the parting : Pomace and must are separated. from the must, the wine is obtained from must supply, from the pomace of the muck.

the apple-lactic acid fermentation : the malic acid transforms under the natural influence of the bacteria into lactic acid (makes the wine more pleasing and rounder)

the expansion : the wine is clarified and bottled, (totality of the operations by which the wine is stabilized) it can ripen!
The composition of the wine:

So far you have found 1000 component .

The Water represents 85 to 90% of the composition.

The second most important element is the Äthyl-acid which results from the yeast fermentation. Each wine contains acids which are caused by the organic acids among other things the tartaric acid.

The mineral composition The wine is peculiar, you will find in it: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, sulfur, phosphorus, all the elements that man needs daily.

Potassium salt and sulfur are known to promote urination. The wine also contains polyols, including glycerin, which gives the wine its delicate sweetness.

In the wine one finds light quantities nitrogen, as well as 20 amino acids, among other things Prolin. It is amazing to note that the proportion of amino acids is close to the proportion in the blood.

The wine contains vitaminender B group, mainly the vitamins P, which has the property to strengthen the capillaries, which helps to reduce heavy bleeding and bruising.

The wine also contains special properties which give it its own personal touch (component of the aroma) such as the phenolic compound (phenolic acid, flower blue, tannins).
Scalding and mashing
Upon arrival in the cellar, the grapes are crushed and they are released from the black horse. The berries are emptied of their juice and pulp. The obtained must is sent to a bottian to endure the fermentation.
The alcoholic fermentation
The fermentation boats are mostly oak barrels or containers made of stainless steel, sometimes they are made of cement or enamelled steel. Fermentation is a natural process. The grapes contain yeasts - but mostly selected yeasts are added - these transform the sugar contained in the must into alcohol and carbonic acid.

The winemaker helps with the fermentation by keeping the temperature between 25-30 ° C and by regularly aerating the must. At 25 ° C, the wine is absent on body, over 30 ° C, the wine becomes tanninhaltig.

The duration of the fermentation sprout lasts 4 to 10 days.
The maceration
In this period, the tannins and the color of the grape skin spread in the fermented juice. The contact between the must and the firm elements of the pomace (the skin, the kernels and sometimes the black horse) give the wine body and color.
At this stage, the talent of the Kellerwirt is of great importance due to the various measures he takes; Dissolution, Extraction, Separation, Dissemination, Decompression, Leaching.
For the prime or young wines, the maceration is short, the wines are gentle and tannin. The wines that are intended for long storage, a high tannin content is recommended, maceration may take longer. The maceration takes several days, up to several weeks.
The parting
The wine is separated from its depot and the separated turbidity. It is the wine from Mostvorlauf. The pomace is pressed to win the juice he still contains. It is called & quot; wine of meats & quot ;. He is rich in tannins.
Depending on the purpose of the winegrower and the local customs, the wine made from the late morning meal and the wine from the cider mill are either mixed or used for other purposes.
The apple-lactic acid fermentation
In this process, the malic acid, through the naturally contained bacteria of the wine, is transformed into lactic acid and carbonic acid. The malic acid is harsh and austere, the conversion into lactic acid results litter and stability. This fermentation is achieved for a few weeks in a beaker at a temperature of 18 to 20 ° C.
The expansion
The winemaking is done but the wine is not ready yet. So that he can age and improve well, the wine is still clarified. Then the potion is filled into oak barrels where it improves to stability.
The red Wine accompanies all possible dishes, so different is the selection. However, one should not assume that all red wines are identical.
The Wihte Wine

Above all, the wine is not white! he is yellow!
But this expression is universal, so it is said that a yellow wine that he knows.

The preparation of the White wine is more difficult than that of red wine.

There are two production methods:

1. In the first, white grapes are used (which are green, yellow-green, golden yellow or rosé-yellow!). So is the "Blanc de Blanc" the result of the fermentation of the exclusive white wine juice.

2. The second method is more complicated. One uses the juice of red wine vines, without any addition of solid parts. It is essential to prevent the contact of the juice with its skin, as it contains the coloring substances. So you can produce white wine. In reality, but so few white wines are produced.

The time is precious:
As soon as they arrive in the cellar, the grapes are pressed (without destemmers). The must is passed to the primary treatment in vats. The muck will be chilled as soon as possible. The air is the biggest enemy of white wine. Your contact turns the wine yellow or madder. The Scheitermost is added to the must supply.

The must preparation:
After six to twelve hours, the impurities and ponds separate from the must. This is the primary treatment. The light juice is filled in oak barrels where it can ferment.

The alcohol fermentation:
The clarified juice can ferment now. The white wine is the result of must fermentation. The solid parts are not used for maceration.
The control of the temperature is decisive. It must be kept at 18 ° C. The winemaker must regularly cool the must. This allows the yeasts to be very active.
The fermentation lasts two to three weeks. Every day, the winemaker checks the process.
When the fermentation is over, the wine is put into barrels, like the red wine, then bottled.

The winemaker often uses oak barrels which give the wine the necessary tannins. The tannins are a necessity for the storage of the wine. Therefore you can not store a white wine as long as a red wine.
But the white wines but have a wide range of taste:
very dry, dry, semi-dry, soft, liqueur, tingling, sparkling, maderised ...

You can drink white wine at every opportunity: before, during and after your meal, even between meals. Many white wines are drunk as an aperitif, others are drank for dessert. One likes to drink a white wine in warm weather. He refreshes, you drink it fresh but not icy.
The rosé wine is not a mixture of red and white wine (except in the exceptional case of rose champagne).
The rose wine is made from red wine grapes. Today, many winemakers mix in the red wine grapes, a proportion of white wine grapes.

The production of a rose wine is difficult. That's why an amateur is sometimes disappointed with the quality of a rose wine. The peculiarity of European rose wine is that he "dry" is, in contrast to the American rose wine is the gentler and closer to the white wine.

At least three different species are knownRose Wine make.

The Gray wine (or pale rose)
The grapes are pressed immediately, which allows a quick dissemination of the color in the juice.
The juice stays in contact with the skins only for a very short time. At most a few hours! The must obtained is delicately colored. The rose wine is then produced in the same process as the white wine, fermentation of the must, without solid parts and without further maceration.
The winemaker receives a gray or pale Rose wine (gray burgundy, rose wines of the Loire).

The rose-colored wine
To produce rose-colored wines, the grapes are placed in the fermentation tank after crushing. The juice produces alcohol and the temperature in the tub rises. In contact with the solid parts, the color spreads quickly. The winemaker takes a sample every hour until he receives the desired color. When he is satisfied, he makes the discharge. The wine is sent to another container to continue its fermentation. The pomace left behind is no longer needed in the manufacturing process.

Punctured rose wine
To obtain an intense color, a portion of juice is removed every hour during fermentation. When the desired color is achieved, the winemaking continues as in the production of the white wine. The Rose de Provence are made by this method.